Policy Guide

Good practice package for buildings in Denmark

Title Status Description
Policy roadmap and targets for Ultra-Low-Energy Buildings Implemented

Several Action Plans and Targets over the years

Energy-efficient spatial planning and urban district planning Implemented

Several examples at local level

Voluntary Agreements with commercial or public organisations Implemented

Voluntary agreements with companies

International co-operation Implemented

Commitment and involvement in the EU, cooperation of Nordic countries

Energy agencies Implemented

Danish Energy Agency since 1976

Energy efficiency funds Implemented

Danish Energy Savings Trust (formerly Danish Electricity Savings Trust)

Energy saving obligations for energy companies Implemented

Obligation of energy companies to achieve energy savings targets

Removal/reform of subsidies to end-user energy prices and on energy supply Not Implemented

Energy/CO2 taxation and emissions trading Implemented

Taxes on energy use and CO2 emissions EU Emissions trading scheme

Removal of legal barriers Implemented

Cost recovery for programme costs to meet energy savings targets, plus no-profit-no-loss regulation of grid company revenues

Minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) Implemented

Building Regulations, continuously updated

Other legal requirements Implemented

Regular inspections of boilers, ventilation, and air conditioning systems

Mandatory energy performance certificates & equipment labels Implemented

Danish Energy Labelling Scheme, now revised to Energy Performance Certificates Bygningsklasse 2020

Energy advice & assistance during design and construction Implemented

Energy audits, Energy Service Denmark Knowledge Centre for Energy Savings in Buildings

Energy audits & advice & assistance during retrofit not implemented


Provision of information Implemented

Various schemes and voluntary labels

Financial Incentives for ULEB and deep retrofits Implemented

Grants and subsidies by the government and energy companies

Financing Not Implemented

Education & training Implemented

Knowledge Centre for Energy Savings in Buildings EU Build Up Skills initiative

Promotion of energy services for energy savings Implemented

Commission on ESCOs

Funding for research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects Implemented

various demonstration programmes for ultra low energy and nearly zero energy buildings and renovations

Public sector programmes Implemented

10 % savings target for government buildings; curve breaker agreements for other public bodies


  • Kiyar, Dagmar (Lead author)
  • Jentgens, Anne (Author)
  • Thomas, Stefan (Reviewer)

References and further reading

  • Aggerholm, Sören; Engelung Thomsen, Kirsten; Wittchen, Kim B. (2010): Implementation of the EPBD in Denmark. Status in November 2010. www.bigee.net/s/76rg8n
  • Danish Energy Agency (2010): Energy Policy Statement 2010. June 2010. www.bigee.net/s/65bp3h
  • Danish Energy Authority (2003): Danish Energy Saving Report. May 2003. www.bigee.net/s/2zwfph 
  • Danish Government (2011): Energy Strategy 2050. From coal, oil and gas to green energy. February 2011. www.bigee.net/s/ugii3k 
  • Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building (2012): Energy Policy Report 2012. May 2012. www.bigee.net/s/h5vvqx 
  • Danish Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs (2010): Building Regulations (BR10). Copenhagen, 12. of December 2010. www.bigee.net/s/zy9z9r
  • Dyck-Madsen, Søren (2011): EE Targets in place in Denmark. The Danish Ecological Council. Survey made for eceee. www.bigee.net/s/ssjp2c
  • Ea Energianalyse, NIRAS and Viegand og Maagøe (2012): Evaluiering af energiselskabernes energispareaktiviter (in Danish). www.bigee.net/s/chuz82
  • Elsparefonden (2004): Evaluation of the Danish Electricity Saving Trust, October 2004 report in Danish by Rambøll Management – Translated by Robin Worrall, Kopenhagen
  • Energy Analysis, Niras, RUC and 4-Fact (2008): En vej til flere og billigere energibesparelser: Evaluering af samtlige danske energispareaktiviteter. December 2008. Only available in Danish. www.bigee.net/s/izevqp 
  • Energy in Urban Planning and in Restructuring Areas (ENPIRE) (2009): Energy Efficiency in urban restructuring processes. 
  • Ericsson, Karin (2006): Evaluation of the Danish Voluntary Agreements on Energy Efficiency in Trade and Industry. www.bigee.net/s/3d2a4e
  • Ezban, Renato (2010): Energy Efficiency Institutional Governance. Case study Denmark. Presentation on June 2 2010. Availabe online: www.bigee.net/s/q2abjn
  • Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten (2011): Existing buildings – users, renovations and policy. www.bigee.net/s/3345nz
  • Hansen, Marie Louise (2010): Danish government strategy for reduction of energy consumption in buildings. June 2010. www.bigee.net/s/ya8xjp
  • International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011): Implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations in IEA member countries: recent developments. Period from March 2009 to March 2011. Prepared by Sara Bryan Pasquier. www.bigee.net/s/m2mhu9
  • Kofod, Casper (2010): National Report on Energy Efficiency Service Business in Denmark. Task 2.1 of the ChangeBest project. www.bigee.net/s/jqi5kb
  • Laustsen, Jens (2008): Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for new Buildings. IEA Information Paper. www.bigee.net/s/nb8ytc
  • Lüders, Christian; Laybourn, Annika (2011): Danish home energy check – an innovative tool to help home owners consolidate knowledge about energy efficiency in homes. ECEEE 2011 Summer Study. Energy Efficiency First: The foundation of a low-carbon society.
  • Lund, Henrik Teglgaard; Bechmann, Dorthe (2011): Helping construction clients preserve the low energy design goals – throughout the construction process. ECEEE 2011 Summer Study. Energy Efficiency First: The foundation of a low-carbon society.
  • McCormick, Kes; Neij, Lena (2009): Experience of Policy Instruments for Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Nordic Countries. www.bigee.net/s/muyz8w
  • Nordic Energy Municipality (2011): The Albertslund Concept. www.bigee.net/s/eqt7t3
  • Odyssee & MURE (2011): Energy Efficiency Profile: Denmark. May 2011. www.bigee.net/s/mc2wd4
  • The Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) (2010): A comparison of energy efficiency programmes for existing homes in eleven countries. Prepared for the Department of Energy and Climate Change United Kingdom. February 2010. www.bigee.net/s/eyfpax
  • Thomsen, Kirsten Engelung; Mørck, Ove; Buvik, Karin; Rolland, Jan (2009): Innovative retrofit to improve energy efficiency in public buildings. www.bigee.net/s/zyg21a
  • Togeby, Mikael; Dyhr-Mikkelsen; Larsen, Anders E.; Hansen, Morten Juel; Bach, Peter (2009): Danish Energy Efficiency Policy: revisited and future improvements. In: ECEEE Summer Study 2009. www.bigee.net/s/62js1x
  • Togeby, Mikael; Dyhr-Mikkelsen; Larsen, Anders E.; Bach, Peter (2011): A Danish case: portfolio evaluation and its impact on energy efficiency policy. In: Energy Efficiency. Special Issue – Vine. Published online: March 2011. www.bigee.net/s/xcmjg3
  • Togeby, Mikael; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten; Larsen, Anders E.; and Bach, Peter (2012): A Danish case: portfolio evaluation and its impact on energy efficiency policy. Energy Efficiency 5: 37–49.
  • Bright Green Business: About Project Zero. www.bigee.net/s/mbq8ss
  • Danish Energy Agency (ENS DKa): The European CO2 emission trading scheme in Denmark. www.bigee.net/s/fpcdy7
  • Danish Energy Agency (ENS DKb): About the Danish Energy Agency. www.bigee.net/s/4tp9ww
  • World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Scotland (2011): Maximizing the Minimum: The need for minimum energy performance standards in private housing. May 2011. www.bigee.net/s/s74k44
Further reading:
  • Hansen Kjærbye, Vibeke (2008): Does Energy Labelling on Residential Housing Cause Energy Savings? December 2008. www.bigee.net/s/dzcism

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